Hacking Master Dial Combination Locks

I am by no means the first person to use this technique to hack the Master Dial Combination Lock.  That aside, hacking combo locks is fun.  Its kind of like solving a Rubik’s cube, except that I can’t solve a Rubik’s cube.  I can solve the top two planes, but I digress.

The rest of this page will explain step by step how to hack the Master Dial Combination Lock.

Step 1: Get a Master Dial Combination Lock.

You will need a Master Dial Combination Lock in front of you for the rest of this to make sense/work.  It is important that it is Master Lock brand, because to determine the combination  we will use modular arithmetic that relies on modular offsets that have proven to be consistent throughout the Master Lock product.  The fundamental theory will apply to most dial combination locks, such as the stopgaps and modular arithmetic, but the offsets may be different in different brands (I own many dial locks with different offsets).

A Master Dial Combination Lock

As a usual rule of thumb I like to buy a new lock and throw the combination sticker away without looking at it.  This guarantees that I will only be able to open the lock by picking it.  The first few times you do this, you will also probably want to have some paper and a pen handy.  Probably even a full sheet of paper.

Step 2: Determine the Stopgap Locations Using Manipulation.
There are three disks within the Master Lock, each corresponding to one number in the combination. In order to open the lock, the three disks must be aligned in the correct way.

The first step is to determine the stopgaps in your lock.  Pull up firmly on the lock,s shackle (The shackle is the “U”-shaped part that you pull on to open the lock).  Rotating the dial should be harder than it is without pulling on the shackle.  After a small rotation, or none at all, the dial should only be able to rotate about the width of one dial number.  For example, the dial should only rotate between the number 10 and 11.  If that were the case, you could record a stopgap being at the value 10.5.  Repeating this all around the lock should result in 10 numbers.

On my lock I got the numbers:

0, 3.5, 6.5, 10, 13.5, 16.5, 20, 23.5, 27, 30, 33.5, 36.5

So, just to recap, if the dial rotates between 23 and 24, I would record it as 23.5.  If it rotates between 19.5 and 20.5 I would record it as 20.  Out of the 12 numbers you record, 7 of them should end in .5 and 5 of them should be a whole number.  Of the whole numbers 4 should have the same ones digit, and 1 should have a unique value in the ones digit.  This is the third number in the combination.

In my lock the third number is 27.

Step 3: Find the Magic Number.

Now that you have the third number of the lock, divide it by four and find the remainder.  This is technically finding the third number modulo 4, but other tutorials refer to this as finding the magic number.  In my case 27 %4 = 3.  The magic number would then be said to be 3.  After having the magic number, enumerating all of the possible combinations of the master lock is easy.  The first number will be one of the magic number, the magic number +4, the magic number+8, and so on and so forth.

The possible 1st numbers for my lock are 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 39.

The possible 2nd numbers for the lock fall evenly between the possible 1st numbers.

The possible 2nd numbers for my lock are 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, 37.

Step 4: Put it all together.

So in total there are a possible 64,00 combinations, 40 x 40 x 40.  By now we have reduced the total number of combinations to 100, 10 for the first number, 10 for the second number, and 1 last number.    100 possible combinations is a mere .15625 percent of the total number of combinations.

The total combinations for my lock would be every permutation of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd numbers that we saw above.  In my case this leaves me with:

3-1-27
3-5-27
3-9-27
3-13-27
3-17-27
3-21-27
3-25-27
3-29-27
3-33-27
3-37-27
7-1-27
7-5-27
7-9-27
7-13-27
7-17-27
7-21-27
7-25-27
7-29-27
7-33-27 <– That’s my combo!
7-37-27
11-1-27
11-5-27
11-9-27
11-13-27
11-17-27
11-21-27
11-25-27
11-29-27
11-33-27
11-37-27
15-1-27
15-5-27
15-9-27
15-13-27
15-17-27
15-21-27
15-25-27
15-29-27
15-33-27
15-37-27
19-1-27
19-5-27
19-9-27
19-13-27
19-17-27
19-21-27
19-25-27
19-29-27
19-33-27
19-37-27
23-1-27
23-5-27
23-9-27
23-13-27
23-17-27
23-21-27
23-25-27
23-29-27
23-33-27
23-37-27
27-1-27
27-5-27
27-9-27
27-13-27
27-17-27
27-21-27
27-25-27
27-29-27
27-33-27
27-37-27
31-1-27
31-5-27
31-9-27
31-13-27
31-17-27
31-21-27
31-25-27
31-29-27
31-33-27
31-37-27
35-1-27
35-5-27
35-9-27
35-13-27
35-17-27
35-21-27
35-25-27
35-29-27
35-33-27
35-37-27
39-1-27
39-5-27
39-9-27
39-13-27
39-17-27
39-21-27
39-25-27
39-29-27
39-33-27
39-37-27

I got lucky, and my combination turned out to be 19th combination I tried.  Either way, even if its the 100th combination you try, that’s a lot less than 64,000.

Vim: Converting tabs to spaces

On machines running linux you can create a file named .vimrc in your home directory.  This file will be parsed for configuration parameters when you open vim.

To edit this file, or create it if it doesn’t exist, open a terminal and type

  vim ~/.vimrc

And add the following lines to your .vimrc file.  Replace the size of the tabstop and shiftwidth as you see neccesary.  The number represents the number of spaces per tab character.

:set tabstop=4

:set shiftwidth=4

:set expandtabs

PEM: Privacy Enhanced Mail

Privacy Enhanced Mail (Privacy-enhanced Electronic-Mail) is a proposed IETF standard for securing electronic mail using public-key cryptography.  The .pem file extension is used to signify a certificate file that is base64 encoded.  This means that the files are encoded in ASCII and are readable in a text editor.  This is in contrast to the .crt file extension; this is used to signify binary certificate files.  PEM files wrap base64 encoded certificate in BEGIN/END markers that specify the type of certificate encoded between the makers.

PEM BEGIN/END Markers

BEGIN/END markers in PEM files start with the string “—–“ followed by “BEGIN” or “END” and then a marker name representing the type of certificate between the markers.  These markers are not standardized, but OpenSSL v1.68 defined the following markers in crypto/pem/pem.h:

"X509 CERTIFICATE", "CERTIFICATE", "CERTIFICATE PAIR", 
"TRUSTED CERTIFICATE","NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST", "CERTIFICATE REQUEST", 
"X509 CRL", "ANY PRIVATE KEY", "PUBLIC KEY", "RSA PRIVATE KEY", 
"RSA PUBLIC KEY", "DSA PRIVATE KEY", "DSA PUBLIC KEY", "PKCS7", 
"PKCS #7 SIGNED DATA", "ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY", "PRIVATE KEY", 
"DH PARAMETERS", "SSL SESSION PARAMETERS", "DSA PARAMETERS", 
"ECDSA PUBLIC KEY", "EC PARAMETERS", "EC PRIVATE KEY”, "CMS"

PEM Certificate

A PEM Certificate is a base64 encoded certificate, in the format described by its marker tags.  The cryptographic definition of a public key certificate is an electronic document that uses a digital signature to bind a public key with an identity.  This identity could contain the name of a person or organization, an address, etc.  Certificates are used to verify that a public key belongs to a specific individual or organization.

X.509 Certificate

X.509 is an ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard for a public key infrastructure (PKI) and Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI).  X.509’s specifications include, but are not limited to, standard formats for public key certificates, certificate revocation lists, attribute certificates, and a certification path validation algorithm.  The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has a working group Public Key Infrastructure (X.509), more commonly known as PKIX, and the terminology X.509 Certificate usually refers to and IETF PKIX certificate, as well as the CRL Profile of the X.509 v3 certificate standard.  This standard is specified in RFC 5280.

5.509 Certificate Syntax

The X.509 v3 digital certificate contains the following fields, described using Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1):

  • Certificate
    • Version
    • Serial Number
    • Algorithm ID
    • Issuer
    • Validity
      • Not Before
      • Not After
    • Subject
    • Subject Public Key Info
      • Public Key Algorithm
      • Subject Public Key
    • Issuer Unique Identifier (optional)
    • Subject Unique Identifier (optional)
    • Extensions (optional)
  • Certificate Signature Algorithm
  • Certificate Signature

Common X509 Filename Extensions

  • .pemPrivacy Enhanced Mail:  This is a base64 encoded DER certificate
  • .cer, .crt, .der- These are usually in binary DER form, but are sometimes also base64 encoded.
  • .p7b, .p7c - These are a SignedData structure with no data except one or more certificates or one or more certificate revocation lists.  These are signed with PKCS#7.
  • .p12 – This is a password protected certificate and exchanged public and private objects in a single file using PKCS#12.
  • .pfx – PFX is a predecessor of PKCS#12.  It usually is generated by IIS and contains data in the PKCS#12 format.

Relevant Algorithms

  • PKCS#7 – Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard: This is based on the PEM standard.  The Cryptographic Message Standard (CMS) is usually used to sign or encrypt messages under a PKI.    This is also used for certificate dissemination, and also commonly used for single sign-on operations.
  • PKCS#12 – Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard:  PKCS#12 is an algorithm published by RSA Laboratories.  It is used to store X.509 private keys with accompanying public key certificates.  It protects the contents of the file with a password-based symmetric key.  As of now, it is the only standard way to store private keys and certificates in a single encrypted file.

The XML Signature: Syntax and Usage

The W3C XML Signature defines XML syntax for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document.  If a digital signature is deemed to be a valid signature, it is highly likely that the message was created by a known sender and that the message has not been altered in transit. Therefore, XML Signatures provide a good method to detect a forgery or tampering of important XML data.

XML Signature Definition

XML Signatures are defined in the W3C recommendation XML Signature Syntax and Processing.  The W3C recommendation document defines different resources that an XML signature may be applied to; this article only discusses the XML Signature in context of an enveloped signature in XML data.

An Enveloped XML signature is an XML signature that is computed over XML content that contains the signature as an element.  The XML content provides a root XML document element, which contains the signature element somewhere along the XML tree.  According to the W3C recommendation, the XML signature should not take itself into account when computing the signature value.  Note that there is a difference between an enveloped signature as described above, and an enveloping signature.  In an enveloping signature, the signature is the parent object.

XML Signature Requirements

The requirements for XML signatures can be found in the W3C working draft XML-Signature Requirements.  Some important aspects of the requirements are as follows:

  • XML Signatures are generated from a hash over the canonical form of a signature manifest.
  • The signature manifest is a collection of references to the objects being signed.
  • An XML Signature must be an XML Element.
  • The XML Signature must preserve the XML Tree, except for the addition of the XML Signature Element.

Aside from enveloped XML signatures, W3C requires that detached XML signatures are possible (the signature is not part of the XML tree it is signing), but those are outside of the scope of this document.

XML Signature Syntax

XML Signatures are represented by the Signature XML element.  The Signature element contains exactly one SignedInfo element, and has zero or one ID attributes.  The SignedInfo element contains exactly one CanonicalizationMethod element and exactly one SignatureMethod element.  The SignatureMethod element contains one or more Reference elements.  Each Reference element has zero or one URI attributes.  Each Reference element can contain zero or one Transforms element, and must contain exactly one DigestMethod element, and exactly one DigestValue element.  The Signature element must contain exactly one SignatureValue element.  The Signature element can contain zero or one KeyInfo elements, and zero or more Object elements.  Each Object element has zero or one ID attributes.  Note that the Object element is typically used for enveloping signatures, not enveloped signatures.

A breakdown of the XML Signature XML Tree is described by the following diagram.   The following description of the above is taken from the W3C recommendation for XML Signatures.  In the description “?” denotes zero or one occurrence; “+” denotes one or more occurrences; and “*” denotes zero or more occurrence.

  <Signature ID?> 
     <SignedInfo>
       <CanonicalizationMethod/>
       <SignatureMethod/>
       (<Reference URI? >
         (<Transforms>)?
         <DigestMethod>
         <DigestValue>
       </Reference>)+
     </SignedInfo>
     <SignatureValue> 
    (<KeyInfo>)?
    (<Object ID?>)*
   </Signature>

XML Signature Verification

When an XML Signature is created, the SignedInfo element is the element that is actually signed.  XML Signature validation requires two steps, which are as follows:

  1. Signature Validation – The value of the element SignatureValue must match the result of processing SignedInfo with the CanonicalizationMethod and SignatureMethod.
  2. Reference Validation – All content identified by a Reference object must be transformed if applicable, then processed with the specified DigestMethod.  The result must match the DigestValue for that reference.

These steps can be performed in either order, but for the sake of understanding and convenience, we will delve into Reference Validation first.

Reference Syntax

Each Reference element contains zero or one URI attributes.  The Schema definition for Reference elements also contains optional attributes Id and Type, but we will not consider those in this document.  The URI attribute identifies a data object using a URI-Reference.  The value of this attribute can be any URI, where URI syntax is dictated by RFC 3986.  The URI can also be in the form of an XPointer, which is both a common and useful tool when dealing with enveloped XML Signatures.

Defining a URI with an XPointer

The XPointer is a fragment identifier for a URI described by W3C in XML Pointer Language (XPointer) Version 1.0.  A fragment identifier is a short string of characters that refers to a resource that is subordinate to another resource.  According to the XPointer specification version 1.0, an XPointer can act as a fragment identifier for resources with the following Internet media types:

  • text/xml
  • application/xml
  • text/xml-external-parsed-entity
  • application/xml-external-parsed-entity

XPointer is based on the XML Language Path (XPath) and can be used to address internal structures of XML documents.  XPath is described by W3C in XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0.

The character “/” is used to represent the root of an XML document.  Since an enveloped XML Signature is usually a Signature over the entire XML document containing the signature, it is common to see a Reference element definition such as:

<ds:Reference URI=”#xpointer(/)”>… </ds:Reference>

You’ll notice that in the previous example the Reference element has a prefix of “ds:”.  This means that the XML Namespace ds contains the element Reference.  XML Namespaces are described in Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition).  XML Namespaces provide a way to qualify element and attribute names in XML by associating them with namespaces identified by URI resources.  The use of the namespaces ds  or dsig are common, but optional.

Reference Transforms

The Transforms element is optional, and contains an ordered list of Transform elements.  The Transform elements describe how the data object was created before being digested.  The output of each Transform serves as the input to the next Transform.  The input to the first transform is the dereferenced URI attribute of the Reference element.  Transform elements consist of an Algorithm attribute that specifies a URI for the algorithm.  Depending on the algorithm, the content of the Transform element can provide additional data to determine how the algorithm processes the data.

DigestMethod

A Reference element must contain a DigestMethod element.  The required attribute Algorithm specifies a URI to an algorithm that is used to compute the DigestValue over the data object that is the result of the last transform.  If no transforms were performed, the DigestValue is computed over the dereferenced URI of the Reference element.  DigestValue is also a required element.  The DigestValue element contains the encoded value of the digest.  The digest is always encoded using base64.

Reference Validation

Reference validation is the first step of core validation in XML Signature verification.  W3C breaks reference validation into the following ordered steps:

  1. Canonicalize the SignedInfo element based on the Canonicalization Method in SignedInfo.
  2. For each Reference in SignedInfo:
    1. Obtain the data object to be digested.  This involves dereferencing the Reference object’s URI and applying transforms as necessary.
    2. Digest the resulting data object using the DigestMethod specified in the Reference section.
    3. Compare the generated digest value against DigestValue in the Reference.  If the generated digest does not match, validation fails.

Signature Syntax

The Signature element must contain a SignatureValue element.  The SignatureValue element contains the base64 encoded signature computed over the SignedInfo element.  The SignedInfo element must contain a single CanonicalizationMethod element and a single SignatureMethod element.  Both the CanonicalizationMethod element and the SignatureMethod element have the required attribute Algorithm which represents a URI to the algorithm used for canonicalization and signing, respectively.

Signature Validation

The W3C breaks signature validation into the following steps:

  1. Obtain the key information, either from a KeyInfo element or from an external source.  Documentation for the KeyInfo element is available from W3C.
  2. Obtain the canonical form of the SignatureMethod using the CanonicalizationMethod and use the result (and previously obtained KeyInfo) to confirm the SignatureValue over the SignedInfo element.

Verification

After Reference validation and signature validation are completed, the XML Signature has been verified.  If either of these two steps fails, the signature is not verified.  Verification implies that you can be sure beyond a reasonable doubt that the xml originated from a valid source.  Hopefully now you know a little more about XML Signatures.  Happy Security!

African Networks

Here is a list of all of the networks in Africa, broken down by country and subnet.


# Country: Africa
# Total Networks: 1,537
# Total Subnets: 24,124,672
# Country: ALGERIA
# ISO Code: DZ
# Total Networks: 27
# Total Subnets: 2,617,856
41.96.0.0/12
41.191.252.0/22
41.200.0.0/15
41.209.128.0/18
41.210.64.0/18
41.220.144.0/20
41.221.16.0/20
41.223.176.0/22
80.246.0.0/20
80.249.64.0/20
81.22.64.0/19
81.26.64.0/20
82.101.128.0/18
192.52.232.0/24
192.245.148.0/24
193.41.146.0/23
193.194.64.0/19
195.24.80.0/21
195.39.218.0/23
196.20.64.0/18
196.29.40.0/22
196.41.224.0/19
196.46.248.0/21
197.112.0.0/13
197.140.0.0/14
197.200.0.0/13
213.179.160.0/19
# Country: ANGOLA
# ISO Code: AO
# Total Networks: 30
# Total Subnets: 113,920
41.63.160.0/19
41.70.128.0/17
41.72.0.0/18
41.74.240.0/20
41.78.16.0/22
41.191.64.0/22
41.205.32.0/19
41.210.192.0/18
41.216.236.0/22
41.221.240.0/20
41.222.236.0/22
41.222.248.0/21
41.223.0.0/22
41.223.40.0/22
41.223.100.0/22
41.223.156.0/22
41.223.164.0/22
196.29.192.0/20
196.32.192.0/21
196.43.197.0/24
196.43.210.0/24
196.45.160.0/22
196.46.21.0/24
196.46.72.0/21
196.202.252.0/22
196.216.161.0/24
196.216.248.0/23
196.223.1.0/24
196.223.13.0/24
196.223.19.0/24
# Country: BENIN
# ISO Code: BJ
# Total Networks: 11
# Total Subnets: 38,912
41.74.0.0/20
41.85.160.0/19
41.86.224.0/19
41.138.88.0/22
41.190.64.0/22
41.191.84.0/22
41.216.32.0/19
41.222.192.0/22
41.223.248.0/22
81.91.224.0/20
196.46.152.0/22
# Country: BOTSWANA
# ISO Code: BW
# Total Networks: 18
# Total Subnets: 99,072
41.74.48.0/20
41.75.0.0/20
41.76.240.0/21
41.77.88.0/21
41.78.92.0/22
41.79.32.0/22
41.87.160.0/19
41.138.72.0/21
41.190.244.0/22
41.216.208.0/21
41.223.72.0/22
41.223.140.0/22
83.143.24.0/21
168.167.0.0/16
196.2.2.0/24
196.43.216.0/24
196.45.164.0/22
196.216.163.0/24
# Country: BURKINA FASO
# ISO Code: BF
# Total Networks: 10
# Total Subnets: 31,488
41.78.48.0/22
41.138.96.0/19
41.203.224.0/20
41.216.144.0/20
41.223.232.0/22
192.136.55.0/24
192.136.56.0/24
192.136.57.0/24
196.28.240.0/20
212.52.128.0/19
# Country: BURUNDI
# ISO Code: BI
# Total Networks: 3
# Total Subnets: 3,328
41.79.44.0/22
196.2.8.0/21
196.223.3.0/24
# Country: CAMEROON
# ISO Code: CM
# Total Networks: 19
# Total Subnets: 120,320
41.67.192.0/18
41.77.80.0/21
41.78.204.0/22
41.92.128.0/17
41.190.224.0/22
41.191.100.0/22
41.202.192.0/19
41.204.64.0/19
41.205.0.0/19
41.205.64.0/19
41.211.96.0/19
41.216.176.0/20
41.217.128.0/19
41.223.28.0/22
193.17.215.0/24
195.24.192.0/19
195.234.120.0/22
196.3.90.0/24
196.202.232.0/21
# Country: CAPE VERDE
# ISO Code: CV
# Total Networks: 4
# Total Subnets: 16,384
41.74.128.0/20
41.215.208.0/20
41.221.192.0/20
197.255.128.0/20
# Country: CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
# ISO Code: CF
# Total Networks: 4
# Total Subnets: 4,352
41.78.120.0/22
41.223.184.0/22
196.32.200.0/21
196.216.160.0/24
# Country: CHAD
# ISO Code: TD
# Total Networks: 1
# Total Subnets: 4,096
41.74.32.0/20
# Country: COMOROS
# ISO Code: KM
# Total Networks: 0
# Total Subnets: 0
# Country: CONGO - BRAZZAVILLE
# ISO Code: CG
# Total Networks: 5
# Total Subnets: 12,288
41.75.64.0/20
41.76.136.0/21
41.190.72.0/22
41.223.188.0/22
197.255.176.0/20
# Country: CONGO, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
# ISO Code: CD
# Total Networks: 11
# Total Subnets: 17,920
41.78.104.0/22
41.78.196.0/22
41.79.232.0/22
41.189.192.0/19
41.190.80.0/22
41.215.252.0/22
41.222.196.0/22
41.222.216.0/22
41.223.104.0/22
193.110.104.0/23
196.22.8.0/22
# Country: COTE D'IVOIRE
# ISO Code: CI
# Total Networks: 17
# Total Subnets: 125,440
41.66.0.0/18
41.189.32.0/19
41.189.96.0/19
41.191.68.0/22
41.202.64.0/19
41.202.96.0/19
41.202.128.0/19
41.206.64.0/19
41.207.0.0/19
41.207.192.0/19
41.223.208.0/22
193.221.218.0/24
196.47.128.0/18
196.201.64.0/19
196.223.4.0/24
213.136.96.0/19
213.150.192.0/19
# Country: DJIBOUTI
# ISO Code: DJ
# Total Networks: 2
# Total Subnets: 12,288
41.189.224.0/19
196.201.192.0/20
# Country: EGYPT
# ISO Code: EG
# Total Networks: 127
# Total Subnets: 8,386,048
41.32.0.0/12
41.64.0.0/15
41.67.64.0/18
41.68.0.0/15
41.72.64.0/19
41.77.248.0/21
41.78.20.0/22
41.78.60.0/22
41.78.148.0/22
41.88.0.0/16
41.91.0.0/16
41.128.0.0/14
41.152.0.0/15
41.155.128.0/17
41.176.0.0/16
41.178.0.0/16
41.179.0.0/16
41.187.0.0/16
41.189.160.0/19
41.190.248.0/22
41.191.0.0/18
41.191.80.0/22
41.196.0.0/16
41.199.0.0/16
41.205.96.0/19
41.206.128.0/19
41.209.192.0/18
41.215.240.0/22
41.217.160.0/19
41.217.224.0/21
41.218.128.0/18
41.221.128.0/20
41.222.128.0/21
41.222.168.0/21
41.223.20.0/22
41.223.52.0/22
41.223.196.0/22
41.223.240.0/22
41.232.0.0/13
62.12.96.0/19
62.68.224.0/19
62.114.0.0/16
62.117.32.0/19
62.135.0.0/17
62.139.0.0/16
62.140.64.0/18
62.193.64.0/18
62.240.96.0/19
62.241.128.0/19
80.75.160.0/21
80.75.168.0/21
80.75.176.0/21
80.75.184.0/21
81.4.0.0/18
81.10.0.0/17
81.21.96.0/20
81.29.96.0/20
82.129.128.0/17
82.201.128.0/17
84.36.0.0/16
84.205.96.0/19
84.233.0.0/17
163.121.0.0/16
192.101.142.0/24
193.19.232.0/22
193.227.0.0/18
193.227.128.0/24
194.79.96.0/19
195.43.0.0/19
195.234.168.0/24
195.234.185.0/24
195.234.252.0/22
195.246.32.0/19
196.1.119.0/24
196.1.143.0/24
196.2.192.0/19
196.3.14.0/23
196.12.11.0/24
196.20.32.0/19
196.22.5.0/24
196.22.7.0/24
196.22.130.0/24
196.32.228.0/23
196.43.198.0/24
196.43.201.0/24
196.43.219.0/24
196.46.17.0/24
196.46.22.0/24
196.46.24.0/24
196.46.26.0/24
196.46.29.0/24
196.46.188.0/22
196.201.3.0/24
196.201.24.0/21
196.201.240.0/21
196.202.0.0/17
196.204.0.0/16
196.205.0.0/16
196.216.140.0/22
196.216.240.0/23
196.216.246.0/24
196.216.252.0/24
196.218.0.0/15
196.221.0.0/16
196.223.7.0/24
196.223.16.0/23
197.32.0.0/11
197.120.0.0/13
197.132.0.0/14
197.160.0.0/13
197.192.0.0/13
197.222.0.0/15
212.12.224.0/19
212.103.160.0/19
212.122.224.0/19
213.131.64.0/19
213.152.64.0/19
213.154.32.0/19
213.158.160.0/19
213.181.224.0/19
213.212.192.0/18
213.247.0.0/19
213.255.128.0/19
217.20.224.0/20
217.29.128.0/20
217.52.0.0/14
217.139.0.0/16
# Country: EQUATORIAL GUINEA
# ISO Code: GQ
# Total Networks: 2
# Total Subnets: 3,072
41.79.48.0/22
41.222.112.0/21
# Country: ERITREA
# ISO Code: ER
# Total Networks: 1
# Total Subnets: 4,096
196.200.96.0/20
# Country: ETHIOPIA
# ISO Code: ET
# Total Networks: 1
# Total Subnets: 16,384
213.55.64.0/18
# Country: GABON
# ISO Code: GA
# Total Networks: 12
# Total Subnets: 169,472
41.72.224.0/19
41.76.120.0/21
41.77.120.0/21
41.78.96.0/22
41.78.152.0/22
41.78.240.0/22
41.158.0.0/15
41.211.128.0/18
192.188.164.0/22
192.189.139.0/23
196.46.156.0/22
217.77.64.0/20
# Country: GAMBIA
# ISO Code: GM
# Total Networks: 5
# Total Subnets: 17,408
41.76.8.0/21
41.223.212.0/22
196.46.232.0/21
197.255.192.0/20
212.60.64.0/19
# Country: GHANA
# ISO Code: GH
# Total Networks: 53
# Total Subnets: 294,400
41.66.192.0/18
41.74.80.0/20
41.75.48.0/20
41.76.24.0/21
41.77.64.0/21
41.78.40.0/22
41.78.124.0/22
41.78.144.0/22
41.79.84.0/22
41.93.128.0/17
41.139.0.0/18
41.189.128.0/19
41.190.68.0/22
41.190.88.0/22
41.191.96.0/22
41.191.240.0/21
41.202.0.0/19
41.204.32.0/19
41.210.0.0/18
41.211.0.0/19
41.215.160.0/20
41.218.192.0/18
41.220.48.0/20
41.222.232.0/22
80.87.64.0/19
192.251.202.0/24
193.108.23.0/24
193.108.28.0/24
193.194.128.0/24
193.194.160.0/19
196.1.116.0/23
196.1.118.0/24
196.1.137.0/24
196.3.64.0/24
196.29.96.0/19
196.29.224.0/20
196.43.194.0/24
196.43.196.0/24
196.43.206.0/23
196.44.48.0/20
196.44.96.0/19
196.46.80.0/20
196.201.2.0/24
196.201.32.0/19
196.201.160.0/19
196.216.180.0/22
196.216.188.0/22
197.220.160.0/19
197.221.64.0/19
197.253.64.0/18
197.255.64.0/18
212.85.192.0/19
212.96.0.0/19
# Country: GUINEA
# ISO Code: GN
# Total Networks: 1
# Total Subnets: 1,024
41.79.236.0/22
# Country: GUINEA-BISSAU
# ISO Code: GW
# Total Networks: 1
# Total Subnets: 1,024
196.22.12.0/22
# Country: KENYA
# ISO Code: KE
# Total Networks: 101
# Total Subnets: 1,616,896
41.72.160.0/19
41.72.192.0/19
41.75.32.0/20
41.75.144.0/20
41.75.176.0/20
41.76.168.0/21
41.76.184.0/21
41.78.24.0/22
41.78.176.0/22
41.79.8.0/22
41.79.228.0/22
41.79.252.0/22
41.80.0.0/15
41.84.128.0/19
41.87.32.0/19
41.89.0.0/16
41.90.0.0/16
41.138.240.0/20
41.139.128.0/17
41.190.232.0/22
41.190.252.0/22
41.191.112.0/22
41.191.192.0/21
41.191.216.0/21
41.191.224.0/21
41.203.208.0/20
41.204.160.0/19
41.206.32.0/19
41.207.64.0/19
41.207.96.0/19
41.209.0.0/18
41.212.0.0/17
41.215.0.0/17
41.215.128.0/20
41.215.192.0/20
41.215.224.0/21
41.217.220.0/22
41.220.112.0/20
41.220.224.0/20
41.220.240.0/20
41.222.8.0/21
41.222.120.0/21
41.222.160.0/21
41.223.56.0/22
41.223.108.0/22
41.223.148.0/22
62.8.64.0/19
62.24.96.0/19
77.220.0.0/19
80.72.96.0/20
80.240.192.0/20
87.255.96.0/19
193.109.66.0/23
194.9.64.0/23
194.9.82.0/23
195.202.64.0/19
196.1.4.0/24
196.1.26.0/23
196.1.131.0/24
196.1.132.0/24
196.3.58.0/23
196.22.131.0/24
196.28.11.0/24
196.32.226.0/23
196.43.192.0/24
196.43.202.0/24
196.43.205.0/24
196.43.211.0/24
196.43.212.0/24
196.43.217.0/24
196.43.218.0/24
196.43.220.0/24
196.43.222.0/24
196.46.16.0/24
196.200.16.0/20
196.200.32.0/20
196.201.128.0/19
196.201.208.0/20
196.201.224.0/22
196.201.228.0/22
196.201.248.0/21
196.202.192.0/19
196.207.16.0/20
196.216.64.0/19
196.216.128.0/22
196.216.242.0/23
196.216.245.0/24
196.223.11.0/24
196.223.21.0/24
197.136.0.0/14
197.176.0.0/13
197.220.96.0/19
197.237.0.0/16
197.248.0.0/16
197.254.0.0/17
212.22.160.0/19
212.49.64.0/19
213.147.64.0/19
213.150.96.0/19
217.21.112.0/20
217.199.144.0/20
# Country: LESOTHO
# ISO Code: LS
# Total Networks: 9
# Total Subnets: 39,424
41.76.16.0/21
41.191.200.0/21
41.203.176.0/20
64.57.112.0/20
196.4.255.0/24
196.202.240.0/21
196.223.24.0/24
197.220.128.0/19
197.254.128.0/18
# Country: LIBERIA
# ISO Code: LR
# Total Networks: 2
# Total Subnets: 9,216
41.86.0.0/19
41.191.104.0/22
# Country: LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA
# ISO Code: LY
# Total Networks: 5
# Total Subnets: 299,008
41.74.64.0/20
41.208.64.0/18
41.252.0.0/14
62.68.32.0/19
62.240.32.0/19
# Country: MADAGASCAR
# ISO Code: MG
# Total Networks: 11
# Total Subnets: 57,600
41.63.128.0/19
41.74.16.0/20
41.74.208.0/20
41.77.16.0/21
41.188.0.0/18
41.190.236.0/22
41.204.96.0/19
41.207.32.0/19
41.217.196.0/22
196.43.214.0/24
196.192.32.0/20
# Country: MALAWI
# ISO Code: MW
# Total Networks: 19
# Total Subnets: 71,168
41.70.0.0/17
41.75.112.0/20
41.76.48.0/21
41.77.8.0/21
41.78.56.0/22
41.78.216.0/22
41.78.248.0/22
41.79.88.0/22
41.87.0.0/19
41.190.92.0/22
41.216.228.0/22
41.217.216.0/22
41.221.96.0/20
41.222.184.0/21
196.45.188.0/22
196.201.4.0/23
196.201.12.0/22
196.216.8.0/21
196.220.208.0/20
# Country: MALI
# ISO Code: ML
# Total Networks: 8
# Total Subnets: 36,864
41.73.96.0/19
41.203.192.0/20
41.221.176.0/20
196.32.112.0/20
196.200.48.0/20
196.200.80.0/20
217.64.96.0/20
217.170.144.0/20
# Country: MAURITANIA
# ISO Code: MR
# Total Networks: 3
# Total Subnets: 32,768
41.138.128.0/19
41.188.64.0/18
82.151.64.0/19
# Country: MAURITIUS
# ISO Code: MU
# Total Networks: 34
# Total Subnets: 478,208
41.76.40.0/21
41.87.96.0/19
41.136.0.0/16
41.207.128.0/19
41.211.64.0/19
41.212.128.0/17
41.217.212.0/22
41.222.96.0/21
41.223.76.0/22
41.223.220.0/22
196.1.0.0/24
196.1.7.0/24
196.2.3.0/24
196.3.109.0/24
196.6.0.0/24
196.20.128.0/17
196.22.144.0/20
196.27.64.0/19
196.46.32.0/19
196.192.0.0/20
196.192.64.0/21
196.192.80.0/22
196.192.96.0/20
196.200.208.0/20
196.207.48.0/20
196.216.2.0/23
196.216.168.0/24
196.216.169.0/24
196.216.171.0/24
196.216.254.0/24
196.223.0.0/24
197.224.0.0/14
202.60.0.0/21
202.123.0.0/19
# Country: MAYOTTE
# ISO Code: YT
# Total Networks: 0
# Total Subnets: 0
# Country: MOROCCO
# ISO Code: MA
# Total Networks: 29
# Total Subnets: 3,392,256
41.77.112.0/21
41.87.128.0/19
41.92.0.0/17
41.137.0.0/16
41.140.0.0/14
41.205.192.0/19
41.214.128.0/17
41.216.224.0/22
41.248.0.0/14
62.251.128.0/17
81.192.0.0/16
105.128.0.0/11
193.188.7.0/24
193.194.1.0/24
193.194.2.0/24
193.194.3.0/24
193.194.4.0/24
193.194.5.0/24
193.194.32.0/19
194.6.224.0/24
194.204.192.0/18
196.2.80.0/20
196.12.192.0/18
196.200.128.0/18
196.206.0.0/16
196.217.0.0/16
197.128.0.0/14
197.253.128.0/17
212.217.0.0/17
# Country: MOZAMBIQUE
# ISO Code: MZ
# Total Networks: 24
# Total Subnets: 324,608
41.76.0.0/21
41.76.144.0/21
41.77.32.0/21
41.77.240.0/21
41.79.244.0/22
41.94.0.0/16
41.138.224.0/20
41.190.160.0/19
41.191.72.0/22
41.217.208.0/22
41.220.32.0/20
41.220.160.0/20
41.220.192.0/20
41.221.64.0/20
41.222.80.0/21
41.223.124.0/22
41.223.152.0/22
196.3.96.0/21
196.22.48.0/20
196.28.224.0/20
196.32.96.0/20
196.46.0.0/20
197.218.0.0/15
197.249.0.0/16
# Country: NAMIBIA
# ISO Code: NA
# Total Networks: 20
# Total Subnets: 166,400
41.63.192.0/18
41.79.52.0/22
41.182.0.0/16
41.190.84.0/22
41.190.96.0/19
41.205.128.0/19
41.218.64.0/18
41.219.64.0/18
41.223.80.0/22
196.1.28.0/22
196.3.94.0/24
196.12.10.0/24
196.20.0.0/19
196.44.128.0/19
196.45.0.0/20
196.46.28.0/24
196.216.32.0/19
196.216.164.0/22
196.223.18.0/24
204.152.14.0/23
# Country: NIGER
# ISO Code: NE
# Total Networks: 4
# Total Subnets: 18,432
41.78.116.0/22
41.138.32.0/19
41.190.228.0/22
41.203.128.0/19
# Country: NIGERIA
# ISO Code: NG
# Total Networks: 110
# Total Subnets: 820,736
41.58.0.0/16
41.67.128.0/18
41.71.128.0/17
41.73.0.0/19
41.73.128.0/19
41.73.224.0/19
41.75.16.0/20
41.75.80.0/20
41.75.192.0/20
41.76.64.0/21
41.76.72.0/21
41.76.80.0/21
41.76.152.0/21
41.76.192.0/21
41.76.248.0/21
41.77.40.0/21
41.78.8.0/22
41.78.12.0/22
41.78.80.0/22
41.78.88.0/22
41.78.100.0/22
41.78.156.0/22
41.78.172.0/22
41.78.208.0/22
41.78.224.0/22
41.78.252.0/22
41.79.4.0/22
41.79.64.0/22
41.84.160.0/19
41.86.128.0/19
41.87.64.0/19
41.138.160.0/19
41.139.64.0/18
41.155.0.0/17
41.184.0.0/16
41.189.0.0/19
41.190.0.0/19
41.190.240.0/22
41.191.108.0/22
41.203.64.0/19
41.203.96.0/19
41.204.224.0/19
41.205.160.0/19
41.206.0.0/19
41.206.224.0/19
41.211.192.0/18
41.215.244.0/22
41.216.160.0/20
41.216.232.0/22
41.217.0.0/17
41.217.204.0/22
41.219.128.0/18
41.219.192.0/18
41.220.64.0/20
41.221.112.0/20
41.221.160.0/20
41.222.40.0/21
41.222.64.0/21
41.222.144.0/21
41.222.208.0/22
41.223.64.0/22
41.223.128.0/22
41.223.136.0/22
41.223.144.0/22
41.223.168.0/22
62.173.32.0/19
62.193.160.0/19
80.248.0.0/20
80.250.32.0/20
82.128.0.0/17
193.189.0.0/18
193.189.64.0/23
193.189.128.0/24
195.166.224.0/19
196.1.133.0/24
196.1.176.0/20
196.3.60.0/22
196.3.180.0/22
196.10.202.0/24
196.22.6.0/24
196.27.128.0/17
196.29.208.0/20
196.32.224.0/23
196.40.192.0/18
196.43.215.0/24
196.45.48.0/20
196.46.20.0/24
196.46.27.0/24
196.46.240.0/21
196.200.64.0/20
196.200.112.0/20
196.207.0.0/20
196.216.144.0/22
196.216.148.0/22
196.216.184.0/22
196.216.251.0/24
196.216.253.0/24
196.216.255.0/24
196.220.0.0/19
196.220.64.0/19
196.220.192.0/20
196.220.240.0/20
197.244.0.0/16
197.253.0.0/18
197.255.0.0/18
197.255.160.0/20
197.255.208.0/20
212.100.64.0/19
217.14.80.0/20
217.117.0.0/20
# Country: REUNION
# ISO Code: RE
# Total Networks: 1
# Total Subnets: 32,768
41.213.128.0/17
# Country: RWANDA
# ISO Code: RW
# Total Networks: 11
# Total Subnets: 161,024
41.74.160.0/20
41.138.80.0/21
41.186.0.0/16
41.197.0.0/16
41.215.248.0/22
41.216.96.0/19
41.222.244.0/22
41.223.224.0/22
196.12.128.0/19
196.44.240.0/20
196.223.12.0/24
# Country: SAINT HELENA
# ISO Code: SH
# Total Networks: 0
# Total Subnets: 0
# Country: SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
# ISO Code: ST
# Total Networks: 0
# Total Subnets: 0
# Country: SENEGAL
# ISO Code: SN
# Total Networks: 16
# Total Subnets: 289,024
41.62.0.0/16
41.82.0.0/15
41.208.128.0/18
41.214.0.0/17
41.219.0.0/18
196.1.92.0/24
196.1.93.0/24
196.1.94.0/24
196.1.95.0/24
196.1.96.0/24
196.1.97.0/24
196.1.98.0/24
196.1.99.0/24
196.1.100.0/24
196.207.192.0/18
213.154.64.0/19
# Country: SEYCHELLES
# ISO Code: SC
# Total Networks: 11
# Total Subnets: 26,624
41.79.60.0/22
41.86.32.0/19
41.191.120.0/22
41.203.240.0/20
41.220.96.0/20
41.222.204.0/22
41.223.204.0/22
41.223.216.0/22
196.1.120.0/21
196.32.216.0/21
196.46.148.0/22
# Country: SIERRA LEONE
# ISO Code: SL
# Total Networks: 8
# Total Subnets: 17,664
41.78.68.0/22
41.78.84.0/22
41.191.248.0/22
41.205.224.0/19
41.220.80.0/20
41.223.88.0/22
41.223.132.0/22
196.223.10.0/24
# Country: SOMALIA
# ISO Code: SO
# Total Networks: 2
# Total Subnets: 9,216
41.78.72.0/22
197.220.64.0/19
# Country: SOUTH AFRICA
# ISO Code: ZA
# Total Networks: 989
# Total Subnets: 20,336,128
41.0.0.0/11
41.48.0.0/13
41.56.0.0/16
41.57.0.0/18
41.57.128.0/18
41.61.0.0/16
41.63.64.0/18
41.66.64.0/18
41.66.128.0/18
41.71.0.0/17
41.72.128.0/19
41.73.32.0/19
41.74.96.0/20
41.74.144.0/20
41.74.176.0/20
41.74.192.0/20
41.74.224.0/20
41.75.96.0/20
41.75.128.0/20
41.75.224.0/20
41.76.32.0/21
41.76.56.0/21
41.76.96.0/21
41.76.104.0/21
41.76.112.0/21
41.76.128.0/21
41.76.176.0/21
41.76.200.0/21
41.76.208.0/21
41.76.216.0/21
41.76.224.0/21
41.77.24.0/21
41.77.48.0/21
41.77.56.0/21
41.77.96.0/21
41.77.104.0/21
41.78.4.0/22
41.78.28.0/22
41.78.32.0/22
41.78.36.0/22
41.78.128.0/22
41.78.140.0/22
41.78.164.0/22
41.78.180.0/22
41.78.184.0/22
41.78.188.0/22
41.78.200.0/22
41.78.212.0/22
41.78.220.0/22
41.78.228.0/22
41.78.232.0/22
41.78.244.0/22
41.79.16.0/22
41.79.20.0/22
41.79.36.0/22
41.79.40.0/22
41.79.72.0/22
41.79.76.0/22
41.79.80.0/22
41.79.92.0/22
41.79.240.0/22
41.84.0.0/17
41.85.0.0/17
41.85.128.0/19
41.85.224.0/19
41.86.64.0/19
41.86.96.0/19
41.86.192.0/19
41.87.192.0/19
41.87.224.0/19
41.112.0.0/12
41.132.0.0/14
41.138.64.0/21
41.144.0.0/13
41.154.0.0/16
41.156.0.0/15
41.160.0.0/12
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196.216.16.0/21
196.216.152.0/22
196.216.170.0/24
196.216.172.0/22
196.216.250.0/24
196.220.32.0/19
196.223.8.0/23
196.223.14.0/23
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197.64.0.0/12
197.80.0.0/13
197.96.0.0/13
197.104.0.0/13
197.156.0.0/18
197.168.0.0/13
197.221.0.0/18
197.221.96.0/19
197.221.160.0/19
197.236.0.0/16
197.238.0.0/16
197.239.0.0/16
197.255.144.0/20
198.54.1.0/24
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198.54.234.0/24
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198.54.251.0/24
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198.54.254.0/24
200.16.8.0/21
204.12.128.0/20
204.87.179.0/24
204.235.32.0/21
204.235.40.0/22
205.159.79.0/24
206.223.136.0/24
209.203.0.0/18
209.212.96.0/19
213.193.32.0/19
216.236.176.0/20
# Country: SUDAN
# ISO Code: SD
# Total Networks: 18
# Total Subnets: 282,880
41.67.0.0/18
41.78.108.0/22
41.79.24.0/22
41.95.0.0/16
41.202.160.0/19
41.209.64.0/18
41.218.0.0/18
41.223.160.0/22
41.223.200.0/22
196.1.192.0/18
196.29.160.0/19
196.202.128.0/19
196.223.20.0/24
197.251.0.0/17
197.252.0.0/16
197.254.192.0/19
197.254.224.0/19
212.0.128.0/19
# Country: SWAZILAND
# ISO Code: SZ
# Total Networks: 9
# Total Subnets: 34,560
41.78.132.0/22
41.84.224.0/19
41.204.0.0/19
41.211.32.0/19
41.215.144.0/20
69.63.64.0/20
196.11.124.0/24
196.13.168.0/24
196.28.7.0/24
# Country: TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF
# ISO Code: TZ
# Total Networks: 55
# Total Subnets: 334,336
41.59.0.0/16
41.73.64.0/19
41.73.160.0/19
41.73.192.0/19
41.74.112.0/20
41.75.208.0/20
41.76.88.0/21
41.77.224.0/21
41.78.0.0/22
41.78.64.0/22
41.78.168.0/22
41.79.68.0/22
41.79.248.0/22
41.86.160.0/19
41.93.0.0/17
41.138.92.0/22
41.138.192.0/20
41.188.128.0/18
41.191.92.0/22
41.204.128.0/19
41.216.216.0/21
41.217.200.0/22
41.220.128.0/20
41.220.176.0/20
41.221.32.0/20
41.221.48.0/20
41.222.24.0/21
41.222.56.0/21
41.222.88.0/21
41.222.152.0/21
41.222.176.0/21
41.223.4.0/22
41.223.16.0/22
41.223.180.0/22
41.223.228.0/22
196.1.52.0/22
196.29.48.0/21
196.32.240.0/21
196.41.32.0/19
196.43.64.0/19
196.43.221.0/24
196.44.160.0/20
196.45.32.0/20
196.45.128.0/19
196.45.184.0/22
196.46.96.0/20
196.46.120.0/22
196.46.128.0/21
196.216.162.0/24
196.216.244.0/24
196.216.247.0/24
196.223.5.0/24
196.223.6.0/24
197.221.192.0/19
197.250.0.0/16
# Country: TOGO
# ISO Code: TG
# Total Networks: 3
# Total Subnets: 13,312
41.78.136.0/22
41.207.160.0/19
80.248.64.0/20
# Country: TUNISIA
# ISO Code: TN
# Total Networks: 7
# Total Subnets: 2,729,216
41.224.0.0/13
192.68.138.0/24
193.95.0.0/17
196.203.0.0/16
196.216.156.0/22
197.0.0.0/11
213.150.160.0/19
# Country: UGANDA
# ISO Code: UG
# Total Networks: 28
# Total Subnets: 200,192
41.75.160.0/20
41.76.160.0/21
41.77.72.0/21
41.78.160.0/22
41.84.192.0/19
41.138.0.0/19
41.138.208.0/20
41.190.128.0/19
41.190.192.0/19
41.191.76.0/22
41.191.208.0/21
41.202.224.0/19
41.210.128.0/18
41.217.232.0/21
41.220.0.0/20
41.220.208.0/20
41.221.80.0/20
41.222.0.0/21
41.223.84.0/22
193.108.214.0/24
193.108.252.0/22
196.0.0.0/16
196.43.128.0/18
196.216.176.0/22
196.223.25.0/24
197.220.32.0/19
197.221.128.0/19
212.88.96.0/19
# Country: WESTERN SAHARA
# ISO Code: EH
# Total Networks: 0
# Total Subnets: 0
# Country: ZAMBIA
# ISO Code: ZM
# Total Networks: 22
# Total Subnets: 160,768
41.60.0.0/16
41.63.0.0/18
41.72.96.0/19
41.75.240.0/20
41.77.0.0/21
41.78.112.0/22
41.191.116.0/22
41.215.176.0/20
41.216.0.0/19
41.216.64.0/19
41.217.248.0/21
41.222.16.0/21
41.222.240.0/22
41.223.116.0/22
196.12.12.0/22
196.43.193.0/24
196.46.18.0/23
196.46.124.0/22
196.46.192.0/19
196.223.2.0/24
197.220.0.0/19
197.220.192.0/18
# Country: ZIMBABWE
# ISO Code: ZW
# Total Networks: 24
# Total Subnets: 77,824
41.76.232.0/21
41.78.44.0/22
41.78.76.0/22
41.78.236.0/22
41.79.0.0/22
41.79.12.0/22
41.79.28.0/22
41.79.56.0/22
41.85.192.0/19
41.190.32.0/19
41.191.232.0/21
41.220.16.0/20
41.221.144.0/20
196.4.80.0/24
196.27.96.0/19
196.29.32.0/21
196.43.96.0/19
196.43.199.0/24
196.44.176.0/20
196.201.1.0/24
196.201.16.0/21
196.220.96.0/19
196.223.26.0/24
197.221.224.0/19